The first study to quantify the public costs associated with homeless people before and after supportive housing placement was published in 2001. It is often referred to in shorthand as “The Culhane Report.” More than a dozen studies have since quantified the ways homeless people with disabilities utilize various public systems, including hospitals, emergency rooms, psychiatric hospitals, shelters, jails and prisons. Some studies explore the “targeting” of resources. These interventions place individuals who typically overuse specific systems into supportive housing and track their use of those systems before and after housing. Other studies quantify tenants’ use of multiple systems before and after placement. All studies, however, point to the same conclusion: 1) Leaving vulnerable individuals and families homeless costs a surprising amount of public dollars and 2) Providing these same people with supportive housing saves enough money to pay for their housing at the very least. Supportive housing helped save area taxpayers millions of dollars in several of the below studies.
- RAND Corporation Study on LA’s Housing for Health Permanent Supportive Housing Program
Rand Corporation, 2017.
- Utilization Evaluation of the Medicaid Redesign Team (MRT) Supportive Housing Initiative
The New York State Department of Health recently released SUNY Research Foundation’s utilization evaluation of the Medicaid Redesign Team (MRT) Supportive Housing initiative, 2017.
- Cost Evaluation of the Medicaid Redesign Team (MRT) Supportive Housing Initiative
The New York State Department of Health recently released SUNY Research Foundation’s cost evaluation of the Medicaid Redesign Team (MRT) Supportive Housing initiative, 2017.
- At Home / Chez Soi Final Report
Mental Health Commission of Canada, 2014
- The Cost of Long-Term Homelessness in Central Florida
Rethink Homelessness, 2014
- Integrating Housing & Health
Center for Outcomes Research & Education (CORE), 2014
- Moore Place Permanent Supportive Housing Evaluation Study
University of North Carolina at Charlotte School of Social Work, 2014
- New York/New York III Supportive Housing Evaluation
NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, 2013
- The Frequent User Service Enhancement Initiative: New York City FUSE II
Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, 2013
- Getting Home
The Economic Roundtable, 2013
- Comparative Costs and Benefits of Permanent Supportive Housing in Knoxville
City of Knoxville, 2012
- Home & Healthy for Good: 2012 Update
Massachusetts Housing and Shelter Alliance, 2012
- The Price of Prisons: What Incarceration Costs Taxpayers
Vera Institute of Justice, 2012
- Frequent Users of Jail and Shelter Systems in the District of Columbia
Urban Institute Justice and Policy Center, 2012
- Cost Analysis for Chronically Ill Homeless Adults Compared to Usual Care
Health Services Research, 2011, Anirban Basu et al.
- Care Coordination Model
Institute for Healthcare Improvement, 2011
- Effect of a Housing Program on Hospital Use
Journal of the American Medical Association, 2009, Laura S. Sadowski et al.
- Where We Sleep: Costs When Homeless and Housed in LA
Economic Roundtable, 2009
- Cost Effectiveness of Housing As HIV Prevention and Care
Nancy Bernstine, 2009
- Health Care and Public Service Use and Costs
Journal of the American Medical Association, 2009, Mary E. Larimer et al.
- Supportive Housing in Illinois: A Wise Investment
The Heartland Alliance Mid-America Institute on Poverty, 2009
- Home & Healthy for Good
Massachusetts Housing and Shelter Alliance, 2009
- Cost of Rural Homelessness
Melany Mondello, et al., 2009
- Costs of Homelessness
Cape Cod Commission, 2009
- The Minnesota Supportive Housing and Managed Care Pilot
National Center on Family Homelessness, 2009
- Foster Youth Housing Initiative
LaFrance Associates, 2008
- Rhode Island’s Housing First Program Evaluation
Eric Hirsch, et al., 2008
- Under One Roof
Denver Help the Homeless Summit, 2007
- Cost and Threshold Analysis of Housing as an HIV Intervention
AIDS Behavior, 2007, David R. Holtgrave et al.
- Housing Is HIV Prevention and Health Care
National AIDS Housing Coalitioin, 2007
- Cost Analysis of Permanent Supportive Housing
Melany Mondello, et al., 2007
- Findings from a Pilot Study of Homeless Dually Diagnosed Adults
Central City Concern, 2006
- Impact of Supportive Housing on Acute Care Health Services
Psychiatric Services, 2006, Tia E. Martinez et al.
- Denver Housing First Collaborative
Colorado Coalition for the Homeless, 2006
- Direct Access to Housing
San Francisco Department of Public Health, 2004
- Costs of Serving Homeless Individuals in Nine Cities
Lewin Group, 2004
- The Culhane Report
Housing Policy Debate, 2002, Dennis P. Culhane et al.
- Connecticut Supportive Housing Demonstration Program
Arthur Andersen LLP, 2002
- New York/New York Agreement Cost Study Summary
Corporation for Supportive Housing, 2001
- Anishinabe Wakiagun Residents’ Use of Emergency Services
Lisa Thornquist, 2001
- Financial Implications of a Chronically Homeless Family
Family Housing Fund, 2000
- Supportive Housing and the Public Health Crisis of Homelessness
Corporation for Supportive Housing, 2000
- Hospital Costs Associated with Homelessness in New York City
New England Journal of Medicine, 1998, Sharon A. Salit et al.